Ahmad Irawan, Robiah Robiah


Graphene is a nanomaterial that has been widely applied to various fields because of the uniqueness of the material, therefore this material is very interesting to be developed as an additive in lubricant. This study aims to determine the optimum additive weight ratio and obtain optimum operating conditions in the graphene dispersion process in base oil. This research is divided into 2 stages: preliminary research and main research. The preliminary study aims to transform the chemical structure of crude palm oil (CPO) through a three-stage reaction into a polyol as a base oil. The main research is the process of making bionanolubricant. Graphene is synthesized using a combination technique with a human urine as reducing agent. The formulations are known by varying the weight of the additive and the time of the dispersion. Variation of additive weight was 0% (A1), 0.25% (B1), 0.5% (C1), 1% (D1) while for dispersion time variation ranged from 0 min (A2), 60 min (B2), 90 minutes (C2) and, 120 minutes (D2). Based on the SEM-EDX test results, the SEM image formed graphene and spectrum layers on EDX show that the oxide in graphene has been successfully reduced. Bionanolubricant was tested for quality with 7 parameters. The composition of base oil formula 250 gr and graphene nanoparticles 0.5% w / w is the optimum additive weight ratio for C1 sample code whereas the economical dispersion time is 60 minutes. The result of the viscosity index test is 121,72, its pour point is 10,4oC, flash point equal to 228oC with lubrication capability tested through four ball tester got scar diameter equal to 0,87 mm. This Bionanolubricant belongs to the SAE 250 class and is classified as a GL-4 lubricant based on the quality level of API (American Petroleum Institute) performance test.

Full Text:



Akerman, Cecilia Orellana., Yasser Gaber, Noraini Abd Ghani, Merja Lamsa, dan Rajni Hatti-Kaul. 2011. Clean Synthesis of Biolubricants Fpr Low Temperature Applications Using Heterogenous Catalysts. Journal of Moleculer Catalysis B: Enzymatic. 72: 263-269.

Peng, Yitian., dan Zhonghua Ni. 2013. Tribological Properties of Stearic Acid Modified Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in Water. Journal of tribology. 135: 1-5.

Pottuz, Lucile Joly dan Nobuo Ohmae. 2008. Carbon Based Nanolubricants. London: Wiley.

Shahnazar, Sheida., Samira Bagheri, dan Sharifah Bee Abd Hamid. 2015. Enhancing Lubricant Properties by Nanoparticle Additives. International journal of hydrogen energy. 30: 1-18.

Soufi, Masoud Dehghani., Barat Ghobadian, Gholamhassan Najafi, Mohammad Reza Sabzimaleki dan Talal Yusaf. 2015. TOPSIS Multi-Criteria Decision Modeling Approach for Biolubricant Selection for Two-Stroke Petrol Engines. Energies. 8: 13960-13970.

Tao, Xu., Zhao Jiazheng, dan Xu Kang. 1996. The Ball-Bearing Effect of Diamond Nanoparticles as an Oil Additive. Journal of Physic: 29: 2932-2937.

Xia, Wenzhen., Jingwei Zhao, Hui Wu, Sihai Jiao, dan Zhengyi Jiang. 2017. Effects of Oil in Water Based Nanolubricant Containing Tio2 Nanoparticles on Tribological Behavior of Oxidized High-Speed Steel. Tribology International. 110: 77-85.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Jurnal Distilasi is indexed by: